Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm.
The finds include 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found, The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD.
Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, philosophers, musicians, sportspeople, entrepreneurs, scientists, engineers, and inventors.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.
In the 21st century, Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP.
In 9 AD, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius.
During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.
During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation.
After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights.