Because of its size, Russia displays both monotony and diversity.
In the 9th century, the Oka River was part of the Volga trade route, and the upper Volga watershed became an area of contact between the indigenous Uralic peoples such as the Merya and the expanding Volga Bulgars (particularly the second son of Khan Kubrat who expanded the borders of the Old Great Bulgaria), Germanic (Varangians) and Slavic peoples.
Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 18,511 feet (5642 meters), and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on Kamchatka.
With an area of 6,592,800 square miles (17,075,400 square kilometers), Russia is by far the largest country in the world, covering almost twice the total area of the next-largest country, Canada, and has significant mineral and energy resources.
Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface-water resources.
With access to three of the world's oceans -—the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific—- Russian fishing fleets are a major contributor to the economy.
Major lakes include Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, and Lake Onega.
Most of the land consists of broad plain with low hills west of Urals, and vast plains in Siberia.
The Russian Federation stretches across much of the north of the supercontinent of Eurasia.